ASSESSMENT GUIDANCE BASED ON CLINICAL RESEARCH & UNIVERSITY STUDIES
In a study of 123 women, 86 case participants had myofascial pain and 37 controls had no pain. All participants had at least two sleeping bruxism episodes during the night. Participants spent an average of 68.4 seconds bruxing during each night.
In a study of 75 patients (58 bruxers, 17 control) revealed the average number of bruxism events per night was 30.9 and ranged from 5 events to 74 events.
In a study of 44 subjects (22 bruxers and 22 controls)
Total hours of sleep: Bruxism Group 7.74hrs +/-1.53 ---- Control Group 7.11hrs +/-1.51
Total contractions per night: Bruxism Group 168.7 +/- 85.7 ----.Control Group 50.5 +/- 52.5
Avg. bruxism events per night: Bruxisn Group 24.63 +/-8.42 --- Control Group 4.31 +/- 4.50
Avg. bruxism events per hour: Bruxism Group3.21 +/- 1.09 --- Conrol Group 0.6 +/- 0.64
In various university studies, bruxism was defined with the following criteria:
- More than 4 bruxism episodes per hour
- More than 6 bruxism bursts per episode and/or 25 bruxism bursts per hour of sleep
Bruxism may be classified according to several criteria:
By when it occurs:
- Awake bruxism: This is presented when the individual is awake.
- Sleep bruxism (SB): This is presented when the individual is asleep.
- Combined bruxism: This is presented in both situations.
- Primary, essential or idiopathic bruxism: For which no apparent cause is known.
- Secondary bruxism: Secondary to diseases (coma, ictus, cerebral palsy), medicinal products (e.g., antipsychotic medication, cardioactive medication), drugs (e.g., amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy).
By motor activity type:
- Tonic (Sustained): Muscular contraction sustained for more than two seconds.
- Phasic (Repeating): Brief, repeated contractions of the masticatory musculature with three or more consecutive bursts of electromyographic activity that last between 0.25 and two seconds apiece.
- Combined: Alternating appearance of tonic and phasic episodes. Approximately 90% of the episodes of SB are phasic or combined, unlike in awake bruxism, where episodes are predominantly tonic.
By current or past presence:
- Past bruxism.
- Current or present bruxism.
- They are frequently difficult to tell apart.